HEADQUARTERS 92D INFANTRY DIVISION APO 92 U. S. ARMY
4 April 1945
SUBJECT: Facts concerning 442 Infantry
TO: : Organization Commanders
1. Below are listed some facts and statistics concerning the 442d Infantry. It is desired that paragraphs 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 be disseminated throughout your organization, in such a manner as not to breach the security of their present situation.
1. The 442d Combat Team was activated in February 1943. The enlisted personnel was composed entirely of Americans of Japanese ancestry. Having been born in the United States, all of the men are citizens of the United States. Very few of them have ever been to Japan and most of them cannot speak Japanese. They are as thoroughly loyal as German Americans, Italian Americans, or any other American of foreign ancestry. A category, of course, into which all of us fall.
2. The original cadre was composed of men already in the service in the States. The fillers were all volunteers.
3. The men proved from the beginning to be willing, conscientious, loyal, and anxious to prove their devotion to their country. The officers found them intelligent and zealous in learning and in the performance of their military duties.
4. In their personal characteristics the men are shy, self-effacing, extremely polite, and personally clean. They are cheerful and anxious to do what is expected of them. Orders are habitually carried out without question.
5. We must always treat the men just as we would treat any other group of American soldiers. There have been occasional clashes with white American soldiers, but brought on by some unthinking individual who referred to them as "Japs", or "yellow-bellied so and sos." Such difficulties, however, never last beyond the time the men get well acquainted. We count among our particular friends these units with which we have trained or with which we have fought. Of these are many American divisions that have the highest regard for the men of this unit both as individuals and as a group.
6. Two of their outstanding combat characteristics, it is believed are, first, that they will never leave a cut-off individual or unit, and, secondly, that they all get up and move forward at "zero hour."
7. They do not like to be called "Japs" or "Jap Americans." They are either soldiers or Japanese Americans (without the hyphen) or Americans of Japanese ancestry; among themselves often "Buddaheads."
8. They are patient in combat, and, like all good soldiers cannot be hurried into a dangerous situation. It is usually better to allow the squad or platoon to work out its own method of dealing with a particular situation -- and they will if there is any way to do so. - 1 - [Page 2 missing]
The 442nd Regimental Combat Team was actually composed of two distinct units: the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and the 100th Infantry Battalion. These two units were formed independently at different times and do not share a common lineage. The 100th Battalion would eventually become the 442nd's 1st battalion in June 1944.
The 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate) was the first U.S. Army unit of Japanese Americans activated in World War II. The 100th Battalion began its existence as the Hawaiian Provisional Infantry Battalion that was activated on June 5, 1942 in Hawaii. The soldiers of the Hawaiian Provisional Battalion came from various units of the Hawaiian National Guard. The Hawaiian Provisional Infantry Battalion was transferred to the mainland and arrived in San Francisco on June 12, 1942. The unit was then designated the 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate). The 100th Battalion trained at Camp McCoy, Wisconsin, and then at Camp Shelby, Mississippi. The 100th Battalion left Camp Shelby on August 11, 1943 bound for Oran, North Africa. On September 22, 1943 the 100th Battalion landed at Salerno, Italy while attached to the 133rd Infantry Regiment, 34th Division.
The 442nd Regimental Combat Team was activated on February 1, 1943 at Camp Shelby Mississippi. The 442nd was comprised of the 442nd Infantry Regiment; the 522nd Field Artillery Battalion; the 232nd Combat Engineer Company. The 442nd Regimental Combat Team was composed of Japanese American volunteers from the internment camps, Hawaii, states outside of the west coast exclusion zone, and Japanese American soldiers who were already serving in the U.S. Army when the war broke out. These Japanese American soldiers already in the Army would become the cadre for the new 442nd RCT.
The 442nd RCT trained at Camp Shelby and left on April 22, 1944 bound for Italy. During its training at Camp Shelby the 442nd supplied the 100th Battalion with replacement personnel which depleted the ranks of the regiment. When the 442nd left Camp Shelby for Italy it was comprised of the 2nd and 3rd Battalions as it left the reduced staffed 1st Battalion at Camp Shelby to train replacements for the regiment.
The 442nd arrived in Italy in June 1944 and was attached to the 34th Division on June 10, 1944. On this same day the 100th Battalion was attached to the 442nd to take the place of the regiment's missing 1st Battalion. On August 2, 1944, the 100th Battalion was formally redesignated and reorganized as the 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry. For unit "morale and historical significances", the 100th Battalion was allowed to retain its original designation instead of being redesignated as the 1st Battalion.
The designation of the unit remained the 442nd Regimental Combat Team which was comprised of the 100th Battalion, 2nd Battalion, 3rd Battalion, 522nd Field Artillery Battalion, and the 232nd Combat Engineer Company. Thus, the 442nd Regimental Combat Team was formed and its first day in combat was on June 26, 1944. By this date the 100th Battalion had already been in the Mediterranean Theater for over 9 months and had been involved in many significant battles including the Battle of Casino. After the two units merged, the 442nd RCT and the 100th Battalion were a single infantry regiment with a single history.
This website will be devoted to the history of both units: The battle history of the 100th Infantry Battalion while it was attached to the 133rd Infantry Regiment, 34th Division, and the history of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team.
The 442nd RCT and the 100th Battalion fought in 5 major battle campaigns: Mediterranean Theater of Operations Naples-Foggia Campaign: September 1943 to January 1944 (100th Battalion) Rome-Arno Campaign: January 25, 1944 to September 1944 (100th Battalion, 442nd RCT)
European Theater of Operations Rhineland Campaign-Vosges: October 10, 1944 to November 1944 Rhineland Campaign-Maritime Alps: November 21, 1944 to March 17, 1945
Mediterranean Theater of Operations Northern Appennines Campaign: April 1-4, 1945 (442nd Regiment less 522nd FAB) Po Valley Campaign: April 5, 1945 to May 5, 1945 (442nd Regiment less 522nd FAB) (considered as one campaign)
Other Campaigns Southern France Campaign: August 15, 1944 to September 14, 1944 (Anti-Tank Co., 442nd RCT) Central Europe Campaign: March 22, 1944 to May 11, 1945 (522nd Field Artillery Battalion)
Rhineland Campaign-Maritime Alps
Po Valley Campaign
KIA = Killed In Action (includes Died Of Wounds) WIA = Wounded In Action (includes Injured In Action) *Includes 15 WIA/IIA in 442nd Anti-Tank Company at Southern France Campaign (invasion)
Source: U.S. Army Mediterranean Theater of Operations Information-Education Section. The Story of the 442nd Combat Team, Composed of: 442nd Infantry Regiment, 522nd Field Artillery Battalion, 232nd Combat Engineer Company, 1945.
Battle Honors: Unit Awards
Presidential Unit Citations (Army)
100th Infantry Battalion (Separate) War Department General Orders 66, 15 August 1944: The 100th Infantry Battalion (Separate) is cited for outstanding performance of duty in action on 26 and 27 June 1944, in the vicinity or Belvedere and Sassetta, Italy.
100th Battalion, 442d Regimental Team War Department General Orders 78, 12 September 1945: The 100th Battalion, 442d Regimental Team, is cited for outstanding accomplishment in combat during the period 15 to 30 October 1944, near Bruyeres, Biffontaine, and in the Foret Domaniale de Champ, France.
2d Battalion, 442d Regimental Combat Team War Department General Orders 83, 6 August 1946: The 2d Battalion, 442d Regimental Combat Team, is cited for outstanding performance of duty in action on 19 October 1944 near Bruyeres, France, on 28 and 29 October 1944 near Biffontaine, France, and from 6 to 10 April 1945, near Massa, Italy.
Companies F and L, 442d Regimental Combat Team War Department General Orders 14, 4 March 1945: Companies F and L, 442d Regimental Combat Team, are cited for outstanding performance of duty in action on 21 October 1944, in the vicinity of Belmont, France.
3d Battalion, 442d Regimental Combat Team War Department General Orders 68, 14 August 1945: The 3d Battalion, 442d Regimental Combat Team, is cited for outstanding accomplishment in combat during the period 27 to 30 October 1944, near Biffontaine, France.
232d Engineer Combat Company (then attached to the 111th Engineer Combat Battalion) War Department General Orders 56, 17 June 1946: 111th Engineer Combat Battalion with 232d Engineer Combat Company (attached), for heroism, esprit de corps, and extraordinary achievement in combat from 23 October to 11 November 1944 near Bruyeres, France.
442d Regimental Combat Team (less the 2d Battalion and the 522d Field Artillery Battalion) War Department General Orders 34, 10 April 1946, as amended by War Department General Orders 106, 20 September 1946: The 442d Regimental Combat Team (less the 2d Battalion and the 522 Field Artillery Battalion) composed of the following elements: 442d Infantry Regiment, 232d Combat Engineer Company, is cited for outstanding accomplishment in combat for the period 5 to 14 April 1945 in the vicinity of Serravezza, Carrara, and Fosdinovo, Italy.